With the development and change of the times, laser cutting technology has been rapidly developed. Compared with the traditional cutting technology, although there are many advances, there are still a series of problems. Such as high costs, which undoubtedly also increases the production pressure of enterprises. Through research and investigation, it is found that the existence of some problems, to a certain extent, affecting the quality of the product cutting. For example, laser cutting cut through, sharp corners of ablation, and so on. This paper is analyzed but also hope to effectively improve the quality of the product itself after laser cutting processing.
Basic concept of laser cutting
Laser cutting, that is, adopts high power density laser beam, so that the material is quickly heated to vaporization or melting temperature, and then evaporated to form a hole. With the beam’s movement on the material, the hole is continuously formed into a narrow slit width. It only then is the cutting of the material finally completed. Usually, the price of laser cutting equipment is quite high, which increases the corresponding cost pressure on the enterprise.
Laser cutting process type
Vaporization cutting mainly manifests in the high power density of the laser beam heating. The object material surface temperature to boiling temperature will be correspondingly faster. In this process, part of the material will vaporize into steam and disappear. The material part is ejected and blown away from the bottom of the cut, by the auxiliary gas stream. It should be noted that during vaporization cutting, the corresponding holes’ formation is accelerated because the steam carries the molten mass and scouring debris with it.
The most apparent feature of fusion cutting is the formation of holes. Especially when the power density of the incoming laser beam exceeds a specific value, the material inside the beam begins to evaporate, and a hole is formed. Once the hole is created, it is used as a blackbody to absorb all incident beam energy. At the same time, the hole is surrounded by a wall of molten metal. An auxiliary air stream coaxial with the beam carries away the molten material surrounding the hole. With the gradual workpiece movement to be processed, the hole will be correspondingly synchronized according to the cutting direction of the transverse movement to form a slit.
Laser cutting common problems
Tip corner ablation problem
Corner ablation problem is the most common type of laser cutting process of the problem, and the root cause is the rise in temperature. Usually, in the laser cutting pattern of the region sharp corners, the laser beam moves at a reduced speed and then re-accelerated to the average rate, which means that it stays in the sharp edges of the region and will be relatively long because the laser beam energy does not decrease during the time of speed change. Hence, it is always working, plus the sample is processed in this region of the high concentration of heat. Finally, also This results in a constant rise in temperature at the tip. Although scientific research also shows that the laser cutting heat-affected area range is relatively small, the advice of the low heat dissipation surface area, and the weak effect of heat transfer, coupled with high temperature auxiliary gas erosion, and ultimately makes the tip easy to appear ablation problem.
Laser cutting cut through the problem
As we all know, laser cutting is a complex process, technical staff in the cutting process, and often encounter the incision is not smooth or cut through. After an in-depth study found that, resulting in a sample plate cut through, there are many reasons. One of the most common is that the laser power down, cutting speed too fast, the optical path is not correct, voltage instability, and so on. Besides, the material itself, the auxiliary gas pressure is not enough; it is also an essential reason. To improve the production efficiency of enterprises, to ensure the quality of laser cutting technology, the relevant technical staff must be serious about the production process of laser cutting cut through a series of problems.
Laser cutting does not get out of the light problem
Laser cutting without light problems, often appear in the production of CNC products, because they are particularly high requirements for cutting quality and precision, so this failure occurs when you have to respond calmly. The reason for this problem, the idea is various, such as the aging of the lamp caused by the laser power drop; current smaller make the laser beam output energy low; laser dust too much; pollution of the lens, resulting in impervious to light and so on. In this way, in the daily work, the person in charge of the enterprise must put forward more stringent requirements for the relevant technical personnel, namely the machinery and equipment’s reasonable operation. Only through continuous scientific summary, and ultimately can effectively ensure the successful completion of the laser cutting task.
Laser cutting the discontinuity problem
The reason for the laser cutting discontinuity problem is also due to unreasonable programming reasons. For example: in the preparation of the laser program, the closed area is not covered, will cut the local steel and the overall connection, and manual cutting is particularly likely to damage the sample, resulting in product scrap. Likewise, the ventilation of the auxiliary gas in the laser cutting process may also lead to cutting discontinuity, mainly because in the process, the extra gas blows mostly the molten metal out of the slit when the auxiliary gas is used, the equipment automatically stops the movement, and then continue to cut after the gas replacement is completed. This way is particularly likely to cause discontinuity of the cutting trajectory.
Laser cutting problems of standard treatment methods
Adjust the laser cutting line as soon as possible. Although sharp corners are often ablated, the cause is not just the temperature, but the cutting speed at the sharp edge. Therefore, to prevent the ablation problem’s recurrence, the more scientific method is to adjust the laser cutting line as soon as possible, thereby reducing the speed variation. For example: in the cutting process can go around the arc, to ensure that the cutting speed remains unchanged, this can also promote in the empty go arc time, the other side of the machine has completed the cutting work temperature cooling down, this can also let the tip of the heat is not over-concentration, and finally ensure that the tip of the cutting place complete smooth.
Besides, to solve the problem of the sharp corners of the ablation can also be used to increase the complementary way. To the production of security doors, for example, in the production process of security doors, the use of laser cutting technology, and to solve the problem of ablation tip, the relevant technical personnel is to increase the way of addition, that is, in the cutting tip to expand a small piece of complementary, thus effectively ensuring that the T tip corner is not ablated, and at the same time, the tip size will not change.
Reasonable analysis of laser cutting not transparent problem
The laser cutting process, cutting through, is also a significant problem. The reasons for its existence are multifaceted, so when the proposed solution to the countermeasures should also be targeted. For example: for the laser itself caused by the problem of cutting through, the technical staff should first check the outer optical transmission lens for contamination or damage. In the already contaminated lenses after cleaning, if there is still cutting through the problem, you need to consider the optical path or the laser itself.
In the iron and steel industry, for example, in the production of titanium products in the machine, the main reason for the laser cutting is not transparent lies in the optical path is not correct. The technical staff should adjust the optical path promptly, mainly to improve the beam’s focus and the relative position of the surface of the material being processed. At the same time, but also pay attention to the cutting of copper and aluminum in advance of grinding its surface or coated light-absorbing materials. So, to respond to the high reflectivity effectively may occur after the problem.
Follow the exact processing steps. When encountering such problems, do not panic. As long as professionals follow the proper steps to check the machine effectively, you will be able to find a reasonable solution. Generally encounter such problems, usually according to the following steps to solve the problem: the first is to check whether the water circulation is average, if the water circulation problems, you need to first solve the water circulation problems, under normal circumstances do not quickly artificial short water protection after the use of equipment. The next step is to click on the pre-conditioning, mainly to see if the laser power supply is abnormal. The next step is to clean the lens with anhydrous ethanol. For those damaged or already contaminated lenses, be sure to replace them promptly. The last thing is to replace the laser; the purpose is to reset the laser output energy and solve the series of low laser power problems effectively.
In short, only by the scientific approach, there are steps to deal with the relevant problems, can fundamentally solve the problem of laser cutting technology without light.
Do the relevant laser cutting programming work
The main problem of cutting programming work also lies in the lack of a certain level of professionalism of the relevant technical staff, thus doing the work, always make some detailed errors. Therefore, in the actual work process, it is necessary to increase the training of technical personnel and supervision and management. For example: for some small need to cut down the workpiece, in a complete set of programming procedures is not yet finished, they tend to warp, cutting head in the process of moving will touch them, easily cause the cutting head is crashed. This problem can be avoided by programming these small parts as micro-connections so that there is still a tiny connection to the base material after the cutting path is completed. Removing these small pieces requires only a little force to break the micro-connection.
With the rapid development of China’s manufacturing industry, laser cutting as advanced technology has also been applied to all walks of life, such as automotive, shipbuilding, aviation, nuclear industry, machinery manufacturing, iron, and steel, etc., which also increases the demand for laser cutting technology and equipment in all walks of life. As the technical means in the actual use of the process is not particularly skilled, so there are many problems, this paper for laser cutting in the everyday issues put forward different treatment methods for reference for the relevant professional and technical personnel, hope to help promote the large-scale promotion and popularization of laser cutting technology.